Learn the basics: portable or full-sized machine? 2D, M-mode, or Doppler? Learn what TTE can and cannot do, and what type of equipment and mode to use in different situations.
- Echocardiography overview intro
- Understanding the role of TTE
- Knowing what your machine can do
- Understanding the essential imaging and Doppler modalities
- Echocardiography overview quiz
Nuts and bolts
Become a skilled echocardiographer: in this chapter you will learn how to use the echo machine, with key tips for common situations and best practices for performing TTE exams.
- Nuts and bolts intro
- Preparing to scan
- Optimizing your image
- Making measurements
- Recognizing artifacts
- Controlling infection
- Nuts and bolts quiz
Parasternal long-axis (PLAX) views
The step-by-step demos in this chapter will guide you through how to acquire and interpret TTE images in the parasternal long-axis views—this is hands-on stuff, so roll up your sleeves!
- Parasternal long-axis (PLAX) views intro
- Obtaining an optimal image
- Recognizing the key structures
- Assessing the image
- Mastering the PLAX inflow view
- Mastering the PLAX outflow view
- Parasternal long-axis (PLAX) views quiz
Parasternal short-axis (PSAX) views
In this chapter, you’ll learn how to acquire and interpret the parasternal short-axis views. The practical demos in this chapter will help you succeed in your clinical work.
- Parasternal short-axis (PSAX) views intro
- Mastering the PSAX aortic valve view
- Mastering the PSAX mitral valve view
- Mastering the PSAX papillary muscle view
- Parasternal short-axis (PSAX) views quiz
Learn how to acquire another set of very important standard TTE views—the four apical views—by watching the demos in this chapter.
- Apical views intro
- Mastering the apical four-chamber view
- Mastering the apical five-chamber view
- Mastering the apical three-chamber view
- Mastering the apical two-chamber view
- Apical views quiz
The subcostal views are an essential part of a TTE exam, and are especially important in an emergency situation. The demos in this chapter will help you master these key views.
- Subcostal views intro
- Mastering the subcostal four-chamber view
- Mastering the subcostal IVC view
- Subcostal views quiz
The suprasternal view can be challenging; but, after the lessons in this chapter, you’ll be able to tackle this slightly awkward view yourself, with confidence.
- Suprasternal view intro
- Mastering the suprasternal view of the aorta
- Suprasternal view quiz
The ventricles and pulmonary pressures
In this chapter you will build on your understanding of the normal TTE views so that you can recognize and report abnormal ventricular function and estimate right heart pressures.
- The ventricles and pulmonary pressures intro
- Evaluating left ventricular size and hypertrophy
- Assessing left ventricular global systolic function
- Assessing left ventricular diastolic function
- Identifying left ventricular regional wall abnormalities
- Evaluating right ventricular size and function
- Measuring pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP)
- The ventricles and pulmonary pressures quiz
At the end of this chapter you will master the assessment of valve abnormalities—a skill that is such a significant part of an echocardiographer’s repertoire.
- The valves intro
- Assessing aortic stenosis
- Detecting aortic regurgitation
- Recognizing mitral stenosis
- Diagnosing mitral regurgitation
- Spotting tricuspid and pulmonary valve disease
- Checking replacement valves
- The valves quiz
Other uses of TTE
In this chapter you will learn how to use TTE to diagnose many frequently encountered pathologies so that you are well-prepared when you scan independently.
- Other uses of TTE intro
- Detecting pericardial effusions
- Assessing intracardiac masses
- Recognizing imitation masses
- Identifying abnormal vessels
- Spotting simple shunts
- Other uses of TTE quiz
Finishing your TTE
This chapter covers the practicalities of finishing a TTE exam: learn the best practices for sharing your findings and ensuring that your images are always available for review.
- Finishing your TTE intro
- Archiving the images
- Creating an exemplary report
- Special circumstances
- Finishing your TTE quiz
- Echocardiography Essentials outro