Learn how to calculate total body water, plus what the different body compartments are and what makes water move between them. This chapter lays the foundations for the course.
- Body water intro
- Moles, osmoles, and movement
- Where the water is
- Body water quiz
Learn when to use what type of IV fluid. After attending this chapter, you will know the difference between and advantages of dextrose, crystalloids, and plasma expanders.
- IV fluids intro
- What are IV fluids good for?
- Dextrose solutions
- Plasma expanders
- IV fluids quiz
In this chapter you will learn to optimize your patients’ diuretic regimen, the advantages and disadvantages of each diuretic, what to do if they don’t work, and much more.
- Diuretics intro
- The philosophy of diuretics
- Loop diuretics
- Thiazide diuretics
- Acetazolamide and the potassium-sparing diuretics
- Diuretic resistence
- Diuretics quiz
Regulation of volume and water
Here, you will learn how the body regulates water and sodium and why tonicity is more important than osmolality. This chapter lays the foundation for the chapters that follow.
- Regulation of volume and water intro
- RAAS, ADH, and thirst
- Osmolality vs. tonicity
- Regulation of volume and water quiz
Learn how to find the cause of your patient’s hyponatremia and how to correct it. What’s false hyponatremia? How do you correct for glucose? This chapter answers these questions and many more.
- Hyponatremia intro
- False hyponatremia
- True hyponatremia
- Tea and toast syndrome
- ADH, volume, and hyponatremia
- Euvolemic hyponatremia
- Diagnosis and overview
- Treatment of asymptomatic hyponatremia part 1
- Treatment of asymptomatic hyponatremia part 2
- Treatment of acute symptomatic hyponatremia
- Hyponatremia quiz
Learn to diagnose, cure, and prevent this dangerous problem. After attending these lessons, you will know more about hypernatremia than 95% of your colleagues.
- Hypernatremia intro
- Defense against increases in osmolality
- Why isn't the patient drinking?
- Gain of sodium
- Treatment of hypernatremia
- Polyuria, polydipsia
- Hypernatremia quiz
Learn how to control and analyze this potentially life-threatening ion like a pro, how potassium is regulated, and what causes its shift into the extracellular space.
- Potassium intro
- Intracellular cation
- Regulation: intake and cellular distribution
- Regulation: excretion
- Potassium quiz
Differentiate between the different causes of hypokalemia, and learn the most effective measures to correct it and what to watch out for.
- Hypokalemia intro
- Introduction and decreased intake
- Intracellular shift
- Increased potassium losses
- Increased renal losses: secondary hyperaldosteronism
- Increased renal losses: vomiting
- Increased renal losses: primary hyperaldosteronism
- Primary hyperaldosteronism: hyperaldosteronism without the aldosterone
- Unreabsorbable anions
- Other causes of increased renal potassium loss
- Symptoms and treatment
- Hypokalemia quiz
This is a life-threatening condition. Learn what therapies work and don’t work with hyperkalemia (that everyone’s using). What are the ECG changes to watch out for?
- Hyperkalemia intro
- Introduction and increased intake
- Extracellular shift
- Decreased excretion
- Hyperkalemia treatment
- Hyperkalemia quiz