Back to basics
Here, you’ll cover the relationship between a gas's fractional concentration and partial pressure, and calculations of partial pressures of dry versus humidified gases.
- Back to basics intro
- How to calculate the fractional concentration of gases in a mixture
- Partial pressure and the alveolar air equation made simple
- Back to basics quiz
Diffusion across the alveolar-capillary membrane
Learn about gas diffusion across the alveolar-capillary membrane. Factors discussed include the properties of the alveolar-capillary membrane and the gases within the alveoli.
- Diffusion across the alveolar-capillary membrane intro
- Simplifying Fick's law and lung gas exchange
- What's the difference between diffusion- and perfusion-limited gas exchange?
- How is RBC oxygen uptake affected by diffusion and perfusion?
- What is diffusing capacity and why is it important?
- Diffusion across the alveolar-capillary membrane quiz
Understand how oxygen is distributed between hemoglobin and the rest of the cell environment, and the factors affecting the equilibrium between free and hemoglobin-bound oxygen.
- Oxygen transport intro
- What makes RBCs so good at transporting oxygen?
- What affects hemoglobin's oxygen affinity?
- Calculating the total oxygen content of arterial blood
- Oxygen transport quiz
Oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues
This chapter addresses the determinants of oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues. The concepts of oxygen content of the blood and cardiac output are discussed.
- Oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues intro
- What factors affect oxygen delivery?
- Using the Fick equation to calculate the arteriovenous difference and cardiac output
- Oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues quiz
The ventilation-perfusion relationship
Understand the relationship between regional lung ventilation and perfusion. Learn about why regional variations in ventilation and perfusion occur and the effect on gas exchange.
- The ventilation-perfusion relationship intro
- Everything you need to know about the ventilation-perfusion ratio
- What's a physiological shunt?
- What defines physiological dead space?
- Asthma and ARDS as examples of altered ventilation-perfusion ratios
- The ventilation-perfusion relationship quiz
Carbon dioxide removal
Learn about the main determinants of arterial PCO2, the relationship between carbon dioxide production and elimination, and the importance of alveolar and dead space ventilation.
- Carbon dioxide removal intro
- How are PaCO2 and minute ventilation related?
- How is carbon dioxide transported in the blood?
- Carbon dioxide removal quiz
This chapter covers the relationship between arterial PCO2, pH, and ventilation. You’ll cover the roles of ventilation and alterations in arterial PCO2 in adjusting arterial pH.
- Acid-base balance intro
- How does breathing help buffer the pH of blood?
- How do I interpret a Davenport diagram?
- Primary respiratory acid-base disorders
- Primary metabolic acid-base disorders
- Acid-base balance quiz
Case studies in blood gas analysis
This chapter provides two clinical cases for analysis, drawn from real-life clinical practice. These incorporate many of the principles covered in the preceding chapters.
- Case studies in blood gas analysis intro
- Case 1—What's in a number?
- Case 2 —Now that's teamwork
- Case studies in blood gas analysis quiz
- Blood Gas Analysis Essentials outro