In this chapter, you will learn the basic principles behind acid-base analysis. Look inside and see how the pH is determined by bicarbonate and pCO2. This chapter concludes with a handy rule for how to determine if the primary underlying disorder is metabolic or respiratory.
- What's the pH value?
- Bicarbonate—the primary buffer
- The normal values and cutoffs
- The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation made easy
- Compensation—the basics
- Why compensation is never complete
- A simple rule for identifying the type of acid-base disorder
- Acid-base fundamentals quiz
Respiratory disorders—a short primer
In this ultra-short chapter (consisting of just one lesson) you will get a short introduction to respiratory disorders.
- Introduction to respiratory disorders
In this chapter, we'll teach you about the different causes for metabolic acidosis. You'll also learn how to use one of the most powerful tools in acid-base analysis—the anion gap. As you'll see, it's invaluable when analyzing any acid-base problems.
- Metabolic acidosis—the causes
- Metabolic acidosis caused by loss of bicarbonate
- What happens to chloride when bicarbonate goes down?
- What happens to anions when acid is added?
- The anion gap—causes and calculation
- How to differentiate between bicarbonate loss and acid overload
- Adjusting the normal values of the anion gap
- The causes of anion gap acidosis
- Metabolic acidosis quiz
Mixed metabolic disorders
Several metabolic acid-base problems can be present in one patient at the same time. In this chapter, we will teach you exactly how you can find out if that's the case in your patient.
- Introduction to mixed metabolic disorders
- What happens to bicarbonate when acid is added?
- The corrected bicarbonate and the acid-base algorithm
- Mixed metabolic disorders quiz
After completing this chapter you will know about the most common causes for metabolic alkalosis. You will also learn several key concepts with respect to its treatment.
- Metabolic alkalosis—generation
- Metabolic alkalosis—maintenance and treatment
In this chapter we've come up with super-simple rules that will help you decide if compensation is adequate or not. You'll understand exactly how the lungs compensate a metabolic problem and how the kidneys compensate a respiratory problem.
- Easy rules for assessing compensation
- Wrapping Up