Chapter 1

Cardiac pacemakers in medicine

Here we start with the basics: what pacemakers are and how they can treat a range of heart conditions. You'll also learn how to select the appropriate device depending on the heart condition.
9 Lessons, 1 Quiz
Chapter 2

Nuts and bolts of pacing

This chapter covers the most fundamental setting for pacemaker function. You'll learn about how a pacemaker is able to "see" when the heart beats and is able to trigger a depolarization.
  • Unipolar and bipolar (vectors)
  • Pacemaker sensing and fixed sensitivity
  • Auto-adjusting sensitivity
  • Pacemakers thresholds
  • Pacemaker modes and nomenclature
  • Nuts and bolts of pacing quiz
6 Lessons, 1 Quiz
Chapter 3

Pacemaker optimization

Pacemakers need to be programmed to regulate the heart rate, ensure patient safety, and improve battery longevity. In this chapter, you'll learn how we achieve this with pacemaker optimization.
  • The right amount of pacing
  • Pacing percentages
  • Base rate and lower rate limit
  • Hysteresis
  • The AV delay
  • Rate response and sensor rate
  • Rate drop response
  • Upper rate limit
  • What is automatic mode switch (AMS)?
  • Pacemaker optimization quiz
10 Lessons, 1 Quiz
Chapter 4

Biventricular pacing

Biventricular pacemakers are fantastic for managing a specific group of heart failure patients. Learn who is a suitable candidate and how these pacemakers are able to alleviate symptoms.
  • Who qualifies for a biventricular pacemaker?
  • Positioning a left ventricular lead
  • 100% biventricular pacing
  • Diaphragmatic pacing
  • Troubleshooting diaphragmatic pacing
  • Quadripolar leads
  • Biventricular pacing quiz
7 Lessons, 1 Quiz
Chapter 5

Common pacemaker problems and resolutions

Unfortunately, pacemakers are not perfect and occasionally go wrong. Learn to recognize the most common problems and how they are overcome through programming or additional intervention.
  • Failure to capture
  • Undersensing
  • Oversensing
  • Troubleshooting with vectors
  • Infection and lead displacement
  • Erosion and twiddler's syndrome
  • Upper rate behaviour
  • Pacemaker syndrome
  • Pacemaker mediated tachycardia (PMT)
  • Coping with long first degree AV block — AAI ↔︎ DDD
  • Common pacemaker problems and resolutions quiz
11 Lessons, 1 Quiz
Chapter 6

Pacemakers and the ECG

An ECG from a pacemaker patient can often be used to assess pacemaker function as well as the function of their heart. Here you'll learn to interpret the paced ECG.
  • Pacing spikes
  • Pacing on a 12-lead ECG Part I
  • Pacing on a 12-lead ECG Part II
  • Failure to capture on electrocardiogram
  • Undersensing on the electrogram
  • Oversensing on the electrocardiogram
  • Pacemakers and the ECG quiz
7 Lessons, 1 Quiz
Chapter 7

Pacemakers as diagnostic tools

Pacemakers provide a huge amount of patient information that includes any arrhythmia, heart rate variability, and lead data. In this chapter you'll learn what info is available and how to interpret it.
  • Battery life
  • Arrhythmia data
  • Tips for interpreting electrograms
  • Heart rate histograms
  • Intuitive diagnostics — fluid status and sleep apnea
  • Lead impedance
  • Pacemakers as diagnostic tools quiz
7 Lessons, 1 Quiz
Chapter 8

Pacemakers and external factors

In this chapter you'll learn how magnets and electromagnetic interference can affect a pacemaker and how to make a patient safe during an MRI, radiotherapy, and other medical procedures.
  • Pacemakers and electromagnetic interference
  • Pacemakers and surgery
  • AOO, VOO, and DOO asynchronous pacing modes for surgery
  • Magnets and pacemakers
  • Pacemakers and magnetic resonance imaging
  • Pacemakers and radiotherapy
  • Pacemakers and external factors quiz
7 Lessons, 1 Quiz